You’ve heard it said that, “The nose knows” and this is certainly the case with tasting wine. The human nose is capable of differentiating between thousands of unique scents. It’s the nose that allows us to get a handle on the variety of flavors a wine presents, while the tongue is limited to sensing: salty, sweet, bitter and sour. To truly taste wine you will need to recruit the nose to pick up the flavor scents and the tongue to help discern the tastes.
At times you’ll hear a distinction between a wine’s “aroma” and a wine’s “bouquet.” Technically, the term “aroma” refers to the scents presented by the grape’s varietal character and are often more obvious in a younger wine. Examples of these primary aroma smells include: the scent of peach with Riesling, apple aromas with Chardonnay, strawberry with Pinot Noir, etc. While the term “bouquet” is often used in reference to the complex scents that emerge from an older, more mature wine or it can also point out the secondary scents that are directly influenced by the winemaker.
A winemaker might also decide to use malolactic the making of a Chardonnay, resulting in a wine with rich, butter-based smells. These buttery scents specifically come under the nose category of “bouquet” not “aroma” because they would not be present in a Chardonnay that has not undergone malolactic fermentation, an intervention used by the vintner and not innate in the grape’s varietal character.